Diabetes, also known as diabetes mellitus, is a long-term metabolic disorder that causes high levels of glucose in the blood. It occurs when the pancreas – which produces the hormone insulin – either fails to produce (any or enough) insulin or fails to effectively use the insulin to keep the blood glucose in control.
There are two main types of diabetes: Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 diabetes is known as juvenile diabetes or childhood diabetes because it occurs most frequently in children and young people. Type 2 diabetes accounts for the vast majority (around 90%) of diabetes worldwide and affects people in their 20s to 80s.
If diagnosed with diabetes (fasting >126 mg/dl and/or post meal >200 mg/dl), you may need to undergo several health tests periodically. The common lab tests include blood tests and urine tests. Diabetes can be treated with lifestyle modifications, oral medications, and a few injectables. High blood glucose, if left unchecked over the long term, can cause damage to the eyes, nerves, kidneys, legs, and heart.
Diabetes requires lifelong commitment towards following a healthy lifestyle, taking medicines on time, and getting regular checkups to detect any complications.