Hyperpigmentation is a condition in which some patches of skin take a darker colour than the rest of the surrounding skin. It is a harmless condition which is caused due to excessive melanin, a brown pigment that is produced in the body and is responsible for normal skin tone.
Hyperpigmentation can affect any person across all races. There are different types of hyperpigmentation including melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, and age spots. Excessive exposure to sunlight, inflammation, hormonal disturbances, reaction to certain drugs and some medical conditions are known to cause hyperpigmentation.
Though the condition is harmless, some people may prefer to treat it. This can be done by avoiding exposure to the sun, using topical creams that contain retinoids, hydroquinone, azelaic acid, and kojic acid, or undergoing cosmetic procedures such as laser therapy and chemical peels.